Tuple: This is a mathemat ical term for a finite sequence of n terms. For example, the set {1, 2, 3, 4} is
a four-tuple. A tuple is equivalent of a record. In RDBMS, a table has n tuples.

Unauthorized: Not permit ted, illegal, unlawful.

View: A view is a virtual table in the database defined by a query.

Transient: Temporary, t ransitory, momentary.

Transaction: A group of processing steps that are t reated as a single act ivity to achieve a desired
result . In DBMS, collect ions of operat ions that form a single logical unit of work are called
t ransact ions. A database system ensures proper execut ion of t ransact ions despite failures – either the
ent ire t ransact ion executes, or none of it does.

Table: A table has a specified number of columns but can have any number of rows. Rows stored in a
table are st ructurally equivalent to records from flat f iles.

Tablespace: The logical part of the database which represents collect ion of the st ructures like tables,
etc created by various users.

Superset: Given two sets, A and B, A is a superset of B if all elements of B are also elements of A.
Every set is a superset of itself, and every set is a superset of the empty set .

Static: Something which does not change. (Example: the typical web page is stat ic in that it does not
change unt il the webmaster physically alters the document .)

Software application designer: The person who designs software applicat ions.

Site: Geographical locat ion

Schema: A descript ion of a database. It specifies (among other things) the relat ions, their at t ributes,
and the domains of the at t ributes.

Requirement specification: A document which contains requirement for a specific applicat ion.

Page: It is part of a table. Usually in one page mult iple rows are stored.

Participating entities: The ent it ies which are j oined by the relat ion.

Queries: A query is essent ially a request that a user makes on the database.

Recovery: Restorat ion, return to an original state.

Model: A representat ion or a scaled down st ructure of an obj ect .

Jargons: The specialized or technical language of a t rade, profession, or similar group.

Iterative: Process of repeat ing the same task.

Integrity Constraints: A set of rules to ensure the correctness and accuracy of data.

Integrated: United into a larger unit . Brought together to form a sat isfactory and working whole

Homogeneous Network: A network composed of systems of similar architecture and runs a single
network layer protocol.

Heterogeneous Network: A network that consists of workstat ions, servers, network interface cards,
operat ing systems, and applicat ions f rom many vendors, all working together as a single unit . The
network may also use different media and different protocols over different network links.

Entity: An ent ity is a “ thing” or “ obj ect ” in the real world that is dist inguishable from other obj ects.
Example: each person is an ent ity, and bank accounts can be considered to be ent it ies.

End User: The person for whom a system is being developed. Example: a bank teller or a bank manager
is an end user of a bank system.

Distributed: A computer system is dist ributed when different components and obj ects comprising an
applicat ion can be located on different computers connected to a network.

Encryption: The process of manipulat ion of data to prevent accurate interpretat ion by all but those for

whom the data is intended.

Cardinality of a relation: The number of records / tuples in a table.

Backup: A second copy of a file or set of files to be used in case the primary file(s) are dest royed or
corrupted. Backups are essent ial for all but the most t rivial work. For crit ical work, two backup sets
are advisable

Anomaly: A departure from the expected; an abnormality.

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