Semantic techniques in IoT

Semantic Web and IoT

At this point, many people will be wondering one thing: What will best choice? The good news is that, apart from your structuring and visualizing of documents, it is possible to build and use a web site semantically meaningful. The bad news is that Markup languages, such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript and other web scripting languages is centered more on structure, appearance visualization and presentation of content in web. Semantics is about the meaning of the information is just that - a Semantic (meaningful) layer on top of the WWW.

The Semantic Web revolves around the notion that we can represent a lot of useful knowledge as simple statements that machines can understand. Each statement has three parts: a subject (Resource), a predicate (property) and an object (value). For example: "human beings, are, mammals". Another example “a mammal, can, walk" and a third might be "humans, are smaller than, Elephant".

These statements can be joined to create new knowledge. For example, we know that mammals can walk; we know that Elephant are mammals and thus we know that human beings can walk. That's obvious to you and me but to a computer that's new knowledge that it has to learn and the semantic web gives it a way to figure out new knowledge like this using 'reasoning'.

In semantic web we use semi structured (RDF), it is self-describing (ontologies using OWL), and allows resource discovery (SPARQL). RDF can be embedded within XHTML using eRDF or W3C's RDFa used for finding and manipulating the data that is out there and is accessible via HTTP. For example shared ontologies used to establish meaning (semantic) of the object and meaning of relations between the objects for example: FOAF and Dublin Core.

The most known API for handling a set of triplets (subject, predicate, value) is called Jena: see

Note that there is a lot over overlap between the semantic web and another simper concept called Linked Data. Linked Data is about data, the semantic web is more about processing the data, reasoning over it. There's already a lot of encrypted data on the World Wide Web using a different formats RDF version of Wikipedia, called DBPedia.

These semantic technologies can be applied to IoT(Internet of Things). Without Ontology there is lack of explicit and formal representation of the IoT knowledge could cause ambiguity in terminology. Ontology for the Internet of Things provides all the necessary semantics for the specification of IoT devices as well as the specifications of the IoT solution (input, output, control logic) that is deployed using these devices. These semantics comprise vocabulary related to sensors and observations, using already existed SSN ontology (by W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group), and to take the semantics of devices beyond sensors.


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